Random Number Generator
Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers,
based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the
Random Number Table.
For help in using the Random Number
Generator, read the
or review the
|100 Random Numbers
22340 54125 05654 04182 35158 15672 21013 04991 53057 08859 68011 63997 29153 07127 46648 28085 10331 37035 56925 23813 23149 98582 98841 51180 67606 91769 45839 83628 43703 90037 24476 47716 24881 19945 08195 43444 37698 81492 50111 70810 82155 74679 97109 29817 31694 72947 75747 93905 39430 02854 59466 89632 52248 64402 01382 16999 96705 57588 48380 49448 46243 55857 27017 13536 27422 85764 37294 09263 40239 47312 52652 36630 84696 40498 99650 69079 60793 38766 78287 59725 41971 68674 88564 55452 54788 30221 03923 56261 99246 23408 50920 15268 48784 21676 29558 79356 56520 51584 39835 75083
Specs: This table of 100 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 8/4/2015.
Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked
question, simply click on the question.
What are random numbers?
Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no
individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of
What is a random number generator?
A random number generator is a process that produces
random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss
of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's
Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random
What is a random number table?
A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's
Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the
following User specifications:
The quantity of random numbers desired.
The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the table.
Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.
How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number
Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly
random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly
random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical
applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical
experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for
How can I control the number of entries
in a single random number table?
The value entered in the text box labeled "How many random
numbers" controls the quantity of numbers generated for the random number
table. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can create up to 1000 random numbers
for a single random number table. If more random numbers are needed, Users can
create additional tables.
What are the minimum and maximum values in
the Random Number Generator?
The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values
that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the
smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest
number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum
value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting
of random arrangements of the numbers in the range of 12 to 30.
What does it mean to allow duplicate
entries in a random number table?
Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or
prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number
table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow
duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the
setting to False.
Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to
preventing duplicate entries amounts to
What is a seed?
The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number
Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence
of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number
Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a
random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in
the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random
numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is
created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of
random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.
Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random
sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random
numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted)
are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in
Sample Problem 1.
Warning: The seed capability is provided for
Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution.
From time to time, Stat Trek changes the underlying random number
algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer
algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older
algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to
"save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed
A university is testing the effectiveness of two
different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study,
researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers
who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned
number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following
settings in the Random Number Generator:
They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10
entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the
text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum
value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow
duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the
"Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 345. (The number 345 is not
special. They could have used any positive integer.)
Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a
Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1
or 2. The researchers assign the first entry to volunteer number 1, the second
entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.
Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What
treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?
This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by
the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed
value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used
by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:
Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
Set the Seed value equal to 345.
Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown
2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2
From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first
volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "1". Hence, the second
volunteer received Treatment 1. And so on.
We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each
family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select
500 families for the survey?
We input the following settings in the Random
We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled
"How many random numbers?".
Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the
minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random
numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate
entries" dropdown box equal to "False".
Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a
Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and
20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of
500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.